Sand Cone Test

sand cone test Sand Cone TestTesting objectives:

Determine the in-situ density of natural or compacted soils using sand replacement method.

Need and Scope:

The main application of this test is the cases like embankment and pavement construction, this is basically a QC test or quality control test where certain degree of compaction is required.

This test is also used in stability analysis of embankments and slopes, for the calculation of pressure in underlying strata for settlement problems and also design of underground structures.

Notice: Since the water content of the soil is very likely to vary from time to time and hence the field total unit weight,  the dry unit weight of the soil is always used as a means of reporting the test results and eventually applying in real application.  The established relation between the two reads as follows:

gd = gt / (1+ w)

gd = Dry unit weight ( KN/ m3 )

gt = Total unit weight

w = Water content (%)

Apparatus Required:
  • Sand cone apparatus which consists of a one-gallon plastic bottle with a metal cone attached to it.
  • One-Gallon plastic can with cap.
  • Balance sensitive to 1 g.
  • Base plate
  • Tools for excavating a hole in the ground
  • Clean, uniformly graded sand ranging from #20 to #30 sieve such as Ottawa Sand
  • Proctor compaction mold without attached extension (used for calibration)
  • Plastic air-tight bag for carrying wet excavated soil from field to the lab.
  • Metal tray with a hole in the centre.
  • Oven with temperature kept about 105-110 .c.

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